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Database

The database stores the messages in different tables.

Introduction

We are using the database TimescaleDB, which is based on PostgreSQL and supports standard relational SQL database work, while also supporting time-series databases. This allows for usage of regular SQL queries, while also allowing to process and store time-series data. Postgresql has proven itself reliable over the last 25 years, so we are happy to use it.

If you want to learn more about database paradigms, please refer to the knowledge article about that topic. It also includes a concise video summarizing what you need to know about different paradigms.

Our database model is designed to represent a physical manufacturing process. It keeps track of the following data:

  • The state of the machine
  • The products that are produced
  • The orders for the products
  • The workers’ shifts
  • Arbitrary process values (sensor data)
  • The producible products
  • Recommendations for the production

Please note that our database does not use a retention policy. This means that your database can grow quite fast if you save a lot of process values. Take a look at our guide on enabling data compression and retention in TimescaleDB to customize the database to your needs.

A good method to check your db size would be to use the following commands inside postgres shell:

SELECT pg_size_pretty(pg_database_size('factoryinsight'));

1 - assetTable

assetTable is contains all assets and their location.

Usage

Primary table for our data structure, it contains all the assets and their location.

Structure

keydata typedescriptionexample
idintAuto incrementing id of the asset0
assetIDtextAsset namePrinter-03
locationtextPhysical location of the assetDCCAachen
customertextCustomer name, in most cases “factoryinsight”factoryinsight

Relations

assetTable
assetTable

DDL

 CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS assetTable
 (
     id         SERIAL  PRIMARY KEY,
     assetID    TEXT    NOT NULL,
     location   TEXT    NOT NULL,
     customer   TEXT    NOT NULL,
     unique (assetID, location, customer)
 );

2 - configurationTable

configurationTable stores the configuration of the UMH system.

Usage

This table stores the configuration of the system

Structure

keydata typedescriptionexample
customertextCustomer namefactoryinsight
MicrostopDurationInSecondsintegerStop counts as microstop if smaller than this value120
IgnoreMicrostopUnderThisDurationInSecondsintegerIgnore stops under this value-1
MinimumRunningTimeInSecondsintegerMinimum runtime of the asset before tracking micro-stops0
ThresholdForNoShiftsConsideredBreakInSecondsintegerIf no shift is shorter than this value, it is a break2100
LowSpeedThresholdInPcsPerHourintegerThreshold once machine should go into low speed state-1
AutomaticallyIdentifyChangeoversbooleanAutomatically identify changeovers in productiontrue
LanguageCodeinteger0 is german, 1 is english1
AvailabilityLossStatesinteger[]States to count as availability loss{40000, 180000, 190000, 200000, 210000, 220000}
PerformanceLossStatesinteger[]States to count as performance loss{20000, 50000, 60000, 70000, 80000, 90000, 100000, 110000, 120000, 130000, 140000, 150000}

Relations

configurationTable
configurationTable

DDL

CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS configurationTable
(
    customer TEXT PRIMARY KEY,
    MicrostopDurationInSeconds INTEGER DEFAULT 60*2,
    IgnoreMicrostopUnderThisDurationInSeconds INTEGER DEFAULT -1, --do not apply
    MinimumRunningTimeInSeconds INTEGER DEFAULT 0, --do not apply
    ThresholdForNoShiftsConsideredBreakInSeconds INTEGER DEFAULT 60*35,
    LowSpeedThresholdInPcsPerHour INTEGER DEFAULT -1, --do not apply
    AutomaticallyIdentifyChangeovers BOOLEAN DEFAULT true,
    LanguageCode INTEGER DEFAULT 1, -- english
    AvailabilityLossStates INTEGER[] DEFAULT '{40000, 180000, 190000, 200000, 210000, 220000}',
    PerformanceLossStates INTEGER[] DEFAULT '{20000, 50000, 60000, 70000, 80000, 90000, 100000, 110000, 120000, 130000, 140000, 150000}'
);

3 - countTable

countTable contains all reported counts of all assets.

Usage

This table contains all reported counts of the assets.

Structure

keydata typedescriptionexample
timestamptimestamptzEntry timestamp0
asset_idserialAsset id (see assetTable)1
countintegerA count greater 01

Relations

countTable
countTable

DDL

CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS countTable
(
    timestamp                TIMESTAMPTZ                         NOT NULL,
    asset_id            SERIAL REFERENCES assetTable (id),
    count INTEGER CHECK (count > 0),
    UNIQUE(timestamp, asset_id)
);
-- creating hypertable
SELECT create_hypertable('countTable', 'timestamp');

-- creating an index to increase performance
CREATE INDEX ON countTable (asset_id, timestamp DESC);

4 - orderTable

orderTable contains orders for production.

Usage

This table stores orders for product production

Structure

keydata typedescriptionexample
order_idserialAuto incrementing id0
order_nametextName of the orderScarjit-500-DaVinci-1-24062022
product_idserialProduct id to produce1
begin_timestamptimestamptzBegin timestamp of the order0
end_timestamptimestamptzEnd timestamp of the order10000
target_unitsintegerHow many product to produce500
asset_idserialWhich asset to produce on (see assetTable)1

Relations

orderTable
orderTable

DDL

CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS orderTable
(
    order_id        SERIAL          PRIMARY KEY,
    order_name      TEXT            NOT NULL,
    product_id      SERIAL          REFERENCES productTable (product_id),
    begin_timestamp TIMESTAMPTZ,
    end_timestamp   TIMESTAMPTZ,
    target_units    INTEGER,
    asset_id        SERIAL          REFERENCES assetTable (id),
    unique (asset_id, order_name),
    CHECK (begin_timestamp < end_timestamp),
    CHECK (target_units > 0),
    EXCLUDE USING gist (asset_id WITH =, tstzrange(begin_timestamp, end_timestamp) WITH &&) WHERE (begin_timestamp IS NOT NULL AND end_timestamp IS NOT NULL)
);

5 - processValueStringTable

processValueStringTable contains process values.

Usage

This table stores process values, for example toner level of a printer, flow rate of a pump, etc. This table, has a closely related table for storing number values, processValueTable.

Structure

keydata typedescriptionexample
timestamptimestamptzEntry timestamp0
asset_idserialAsset id (see assetTable)1
valueNametextName of the process valuetoner-level
valuestringValue of the process value100

Relations

processValueTable
processValueTable

DDL

CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS processValueStringTable
(
    timestamp               TIMESTAMPTZ                         NOT NULL,
    asset_id                SERIAL                              REFERENCES assetTable (id),
    valueName               TEXT                                NOT NULL,
    value                   TEST                                NULL,
    UNIQUE(timestamp, asset_id, valueName)
);
-- creating hypertable
SELECT create_hypertable('processValueStringTable', 'timestamp');

-- creating an index to increase performance
CREATE INDEX ON processValueStringTable (asset_id, timestamp DESC);

-- creating an index to increase performance
CREATE INDEX ON processValueStringTable (valuename);

6 - processValueTable

processValueTable contains process values.

Usage

This table stores process values, for example toner level of a printer, flow rate of a pump, etc. This table, has a closely related table for storing string values, processValueStringTable.

Structure

keydata typedescriptionexample
timestamptimestamptzEntry timestamp0
asset_idserialAsset id (see assetTable)1
valueNametextName of the process valuetoner-level
valuedoubleValue of the process value100

Relations

processValueTable
processValueTable

DDL

CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS processValueTable
(
    timestamp               TIMESTAMPTZ                         NOT NULL,
    asset_id                SERIAL                              REFERENCES assetTable (id),
    valueName               TEXT                                NOT NULL,
    value                   DOUBLE PRECISION                    NULL,
    UNIQUE(timestamp, asset_id, valueName)
);
-- creating hypertable
SELECT create_hypertable('processValueTable', 'timestamp');

-- creating an index to increase performance
CREATE INDEX ON processValueTable (asset_id, timestamp DESC);

-- creating an index to increase performance
CREATE INDEX ON processValueTable (valuename);

7 - productTable

productTable contains products in production.

Usage

This table products to be produced at assets

Structure

keydata typedescriptionexample
product_idserialAuto incrementing id0
product_nametextName of the productPainting-DaVinci-1
asset_idserialAsset producing this product (see assetTable)1
time_per_unit_in_secondsrealTime in seconds to produce this product600

Relations

productTable
productTable

DDL

CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS productTable
(
    product_id                  SERIAL PRIMARY KEY,
    product_name                TEXT NOT NULL,
    asset_id                    SERIAL REFERENCES assetTable (id),
    time_per_unit_in_seconds    REAL NOT NULL,
    UNIQUE(product_name, asset_id),
    CHECK (time_per_unit_in_seconds > 0)
);

8 - recommendationTable

recommendationTable contains given recommendation for the shop floor assets.

Usage

This table stores recommendations

Structure

keydata typedescriptionexample
uidtextId of the recommendationrefill_toner
timestamptimestamptzTimestamp of recommendation insertion1
recommendationTypeintegerUsed to subscribe people to specific types only3
enabledboolRecommendation can be outputtedtrue
recommendationValuestextValues to change to resolve recommendation{ “toner-level”: 100 }
diagnoseTextDEtextDiagnose text in german“Der Toner ist leer”
diagnoseTextENtextDiagnose text in english“The toner is empty”
recommendationTextDEtextRecommendation text in german“Bitte den Toner auff├╝llen”
recommendationTextENtextRecommendation text in english“Please refill the toner”

Relations

recommendationTable
recommendationTable

DDL

CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS recommendationTable
(
    uid                     TEXT                                PRIMARY KEY,
    timestamp               TIMESTAMPTZ                         NOT NULL,
    recommendationType      INTEGER                             NOT NULL,
    enabled                 BOOLEAN                             NOT NULL,
    recommendationValues    TEXT,
    diagnoseTextDE          TEXT,
    diagnoseTextEN          TEXT,
    recommendationTextDE    TEXT,
    recommendationTextEN    TEXT
);

9 - shiftTable

shiftTable contains shifts with asset, start and finish timestamp

Usage

This table stores shifts

Structure

keydata typedescriptionexample
idserialAuto incrementing id0
typeintegerShift type (1 for shift, 0 for no shift)1
begin_timestamptimestamptzBegin of the shift3
end_timestamptimestamptzEnd of the shift10
asset_idtextAsset ID the shift is performed on (see assetTable)1

Relations

shiftTable
shiftTable

DDL

-- Using btree_gist to avoid overlapping shifts
-- Source: https://gist.github.com/fphilipe/0a2a3d50a9f3834683bf
CREATE EXTENSION btree_gist;
CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS shiftTable
(
    id              SERIAL      PRIMARY KEY,
    type            INTEGER,
    begin_timestamp TIMESTAMPTZ NOT NULL,
    end_timestamp   TIMESTAMPTZ,
    asset_id        SERIAL      REFERENCES assetTable (id),
    unique (begin_timestamp, asset_id),
    CHECK (begin_timestamp < end_timestamp),
    EXCLUDE USING gist (asset_id WITH =, tstzrange(begin_timestamp, end_timestamp) WITH &&)
);

10 - stateTable

stateTable contains the states of all assets.

Usage

This table contains all state changes of the assets.

Structure

keydata typedescriptionexample
timestamptimestamptzEntry timestamp0
asset_idserialAsset ID (see assetTable)1
stateintegerState ID (see states)40000

Relations

stateTable
stateTable

DDL

CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS stateTable
(
    timestamp   TIMESTAMPTZ NOT NULL,
    asset_id    SERIAL      REFERENCES assetTable (id),
    state       INTEGER     CHECK (state >= 0),
    UNIQUE(timestamp, asset_id)
);
-- creating hypertable
SELECT create_hypertable('stateTable', 'timestamp');

-- creating an index to increase performance
CREATE INDEX ON stateTable (asset_id, timestamp DESC);

11 - uniqueProductTable

uniqueProductTable contains unique products and their IDs.

Usage

This table stores unique products.

Structure

keydata typedescriptionexample
uidtextID of a unique product0
asset_idserialAsset id (see assetTable)1
begin_timestamp_mstimestamptzTime when product was inputted in asset0
end_timestamp_mstimestamptzTime when product was output of asset100
product_idtextID of the product (see productTable)1
is_scrapbooleanTrue if product is scraptrue
quality_classtextQuality class of the productA
station_idtextID of the station where the product was processedSoldering Iron-1

Relations

uniqueProductTable
uniqueProductTable

DDL

CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS uniqueProductTable
(
    uid                 TEXT        NOT NULL,
    asset_id            SERIAL      REFERENCES assetTable (id),
    begin_timestamp_ms  TIMESTAMPTZ NOT NULL,
    end_timestamp_ms    TIMESTAMPTZ NOT NULL,
    product_id          TEXT        NOT NULL,
    is_scrap            BOOLEAN     NOT NULL,
    quality_class       TEXT        NOT NULL,
    station_id          TEXT        NOT NULL,
    UNIQUE(uid, asset_id, station_id),
    CHECK (begin_timestamp_ms < end_timestamp_ms)
);

-- creating an index to increase performance
CREATE INDEX ON uniqueProductTable (asset_id, uid, station_id);